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Nutrition is the life that survives in humankind. Experts say that, Nutrition is good for health that can nourish the body, mind and soul. Nutrition is the food component which is a requirement in the body to grow, reproduce and lead to healthy living life.


Nutrition is the process of obtaining and consuming food that works in the body or it is the process of breaking down food to use for energy in the body. Nutrition is used for various functions in the body. Nutrients include carbohydrates, proteins, fats, water, vitamins and minerals that provide energy and maintain body regulations. 

Types of Nutrition

There are some types are given bellows:

Human Nutrition:

Human Nutrition is a scientific discipline which utilizes food and nutrients for life, health, growth, development and well-being. In particular it is concerned with the nutritional requirements, food consumption, food habits, the nutritive value of foods and diet and health, and with research in these fields.It is the scope of biological and metabolic nutrition, clinical nutrition and public health nutrition.

Animal nutrition

Animal nutrition is the metabolic and physiological responses of the body which are in the fields of molecular biology, biochemistry and genetics. It is the study of nutrition which substances in living things change from one form to another.

Plant nutrition

Plant nutrition is the chemical element that is necessary for plant growth. The elements are directly involved in plant metabolism. However, it has positive effects on plant growth.

Objectives of Nutrition

  • To maintain social and behavioral forces influencing food choices.
  • To list the six classes of nutrients, describing their chemical make-up.
  • To explain the difference between essential and non-essential nutrients.
  • To list the energy yielding nutrients and their energy content in kcal.
  • To describe energy metabolism in the body and other roles of energy yielding nutrients.
  • To describe vitamins and minerals and the role they play in nutrition.
  • To outline the process of advancement of nutrition knowledge.

Nutrition Factors to be Considered

  • Nutritive values of the food items
  • Age, sex, body weight, height
  • Physiological and pathological conditions e.g. sickness/ lactation
  • Physiological activities e.g. sedentary , moderate, mild activity
  • Socioeconomic status
  • Food habits , food choices
  • Religion and customs
  • Climates
  • BMR ( Basal Metabolic Rate )

Nutrition & Their Functions

Nutrition is the combination with nutrients which are required for body function and activities. There are many major and minor nutrients that provide energy in the body.

  • Eating is a natural and essential activity. Nutrition is the food substance that access to food is restricted on economic, social or cultural grounds. 
  • A healthy diet can supply adequate but not excessive quantities of all these nutrients. Personal requirements are depending on individual body size, age, sex, physiological status and lifestyle.


Food is the solid and liquid materials taken into the digestive tracts and body utilize substances. Food is a natural or processing substance which is eaten or drunk by living things. Food is the main source of energy and nutrition for animal or plant origin. It produces energy and maintains growth of the body to protect from disease. 

Types of Foods

  • Grains and cereal based
  • Animal and vegetable protein
  • Milk and milk products  
  • Fruits and vegetables
Food Types
Food Types

Types of Nutrients

1.  Carbohydrate 2.  Protein 3.  Fat 4.  Vitamins 5.  Minerals 6.  Water.


Carbohydrates are organic compounds which contain carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) and they are structures of Cn(H2n O). Carbohydrates include simple sugars, starches and celluloses.    Sources: 

Cereals – Rice, wheat, Job, corn etc.

Roots and tubers – Potato, sweet potato, beets etc.


Proteins are amino acids which contain carbon (C), hydrogen (H), nitrogen (N) and oxygen (O) and they are molecules in cells. Proteins are body building foods. Proteins can help to carry out a specific function in a living cell. Proteins consist with muscle and the connective tissue and they are important as carriers in the blood system.


Animal – Meat, fish, egg, milk etc.

Plant – legumes, nuts, seeds, some cereals etc.


Fat is a main component of the diet. It is important due to its flavor, palatability, texture and aroma. Fats contains fat soluble vitamins A, D, E and K. Sources of fats may be animal or vegetable which produce in industrial processing.


Water is abundant in all living things and according to almost all foods. It is essential for life because it contributes no calories to the diet. Water mostly affects the texture of foods.Minor types of nutrients: Vitamins and minerals

Vitamins and Minerals:

Vitamins and minerals are essential parts of food due to they are required for normal health. Vitamins simplify the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins and fats. Vitamins help our body to fight against diseases. Vitamins are divided into two major groups are fat soluble vitamins (vitamin A, D, E and K) and water soluble vitamins (vitamin B complex and C). Minerals are needed in small amounts which maintain different functions. Minerals also help to form body structure. Vitamins and minerals are the main source such as vegetables, fruits, meat, fish, milk, egg, cereals etc.

Sources of different Vitamins
Vitamin ACarrot, mango, papaya, pumpkin, liver, egg
Vitamin BRice, wheat, potato, meat, fish, cereals, egg
Vitamin CCitrus fruits, tomato, guava, lemon, orange, pepper, broccoli
Vitamin DLiver, fish, milk, butter, sunlight, egg
Vitamin ESunflower oil, coconut oil, olive oil, nuts, seeds
Vitamin KLeafy and green vegetables, soybeans

Balanced Diet

Balanced diet is a diet containing all the nutrients needed by the body to function well. This is attained by eating the right combination of foods in proper quantities. Generally, nutrition and well balanced diet is composed of a variety of foods selected from the three basic food groups:

  • Energy rich foods,
  • Body building foods and
  • Body Protective foods.
Energy rich foods:Cereals- rice, wheat, cornFats and OilsStarchy vegetables- Potatoes, sweet potatoNoodles, Payes, firni, sugar, molasses and honey
Body building foodsAnimal- Milk, eggs, fish, and meatPlant- Pulses, peas, beans, and nuts
Body protective foods:Vegetables and fruitsGreen leafy – like pui shak, kalmi shak, patshak, etc.Red – lal shak, etc.Yellow and orange colours– carrots, pumpkin, papaya, jackfruit, mango, tomato, orange, lemon,  guava, pineapple, amloki, black berry, jumbura, amra etc.
Balance Diet


Malnutrition is an undesirable kind of nutrition that leads to ill health. Its physical function is impaired to the point where it no longer maintains an adequate level of performance in physical work, mental capacity, resisting illness. Malnutrition refers to both undernutrition and overnutrition conditioned by deprivation and excess.



The term “undernutrition” refers collectively to stunting, wasting, underweight, low body mass index and fetal growth retardation – conditions of inadequate nutrition.

Undernutrition is the problem of developing countries, which mainly manifested by PEM, VADD, IDD & IDA.


The term “Overnutrition” refers collectively to more than ± 2SD weight for age (overweight), more than± 2SD height for age and also  more than ± 2SD weight for height and higher body mass index- conditions of over eating and excess nutrition.

Overnutrition is the problem of mainly developed countries, which mainly manifested by Obesity, Diabetes, Hypertension, CVD and other lifestyle diseases.

Emergency Nutrition

Emergency nutrition is a nutrition emergency that exists when there is the risk of or an actual rise in mortality due to acute malnutrition and the country or community is unable to fully cope alone. Major disease caused by malnutrition is protein energy malnutrition and another disease caused by malnutrition is micronutrient deficiency disease.

Protein Energy Malnutrition (PEM)


Marasmus is weight for height of less than three standard deviations of the reference population median weight for height.


Kwashiorkor is defined by the presence of bilateral oedema of both feet. Children who have kwashiorkor may not appear underweight initially because of their oedema.

Micronutrient Deficiency Disease

Vitamin A deficiency disease- night blindness, xerophthalmia, bitot’s spot, skin roughness, Vitamin C deficiency disease – scurvy, Vitamin D deficiency disease, B1 deficiency, Riboflavin deficiency, Pellagra, Calcium deficiency, Iron deficiency, Iodine deficiency disease etc.

Applied Nutrition

Applied nutrition is a science that uses general principles of the science of human nourishment and solves specific problems.


  • A attractive presentation enhance public mental satisfaction
  • Increase the demand of industrial products.
  • Increase public awareness in different types food product


  • It is simple, safe and invasive techniques.
  • The cost of this technique is not too expensive.
  • It is handled by a single person.
  • Give clear ideas about product wholesomeness.
  • This technique attracts consumers very much.


  • Experts need to operate this technique.
  • Sometimes misclassification or misinterpreted the food advertisements


we know about nutrition needs for a long life. It can solve our health related problems and keep in mentally, psychologically, physiologically and physically fit. Nutrition is demand rising day by day in the world which can give to health nourishment and recovery to disease.





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